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  • FF2022-72: Profile of Philippine Offshore Gaming Operators, 2022
    A Philippine Offshore Gaming Operator (POGO) refers to a duly constituted business corporation organized in the country to conduct offshore gaming operations or engage the services of PAGCOR-accredited service providers. Offshore gaming pertains to the offering of a PAGCOR licensee of authorized online games of chance or sports events via the internet using a network and software or program, exclusively to offshore authorized players.
  • FF2022-71: Consumption Patterns Among Filipino Households, 2021
    The 2021 Family and Income Expenditure Survey (FIES) of the Philippine Statistics Authority is the first major survey of household income and expenditure following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the latest report, in 2021, the average annual family income is P307,190 while the average annual family expenditure is P228,800. These figures are lower in comparison to the results from FIES 2018.
  • FF2022-70: Highlights of the 2021 Open Budget Survey
    The Open Budget Survey (OBS) examines the countries’ level of accountability in national budget processes based on transparency, budget oversight, and public participation. The Open Budget Index (OBI) measures transparency in terms of public access to budgetary information. The Philippines obtained an OBI score of 68 and ranked 19th out of 120 countries in the OBS conducted by the International Budget Partnership in 2021.
  • FF2022-69: State of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in South-East Asia, 2022
    The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022, a flagship publication jointly prepared by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, the UNICEF, International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization, underscored the continuing challenges of food insecurity and malnutrition. Such accrue especially from the pandemic, extreme weather events, uneven patterns of economic recovery, ongoing war in Ukraine, and war-induced supply chain disruptions that have worsened global hunger.
  • FF2022-68: Global Labor Resilience Index 2022
    The resilience of work amid COVID-19 is stagnant and stalling in the last five years, leaving too many countries vulnerable to shocks – these are the key findings of the 2022 edition of the Global Labour Resilience Index (GLRI) released by Whiteshield Partners, a leading international public policy and strategy advisory firm.
  • KNOWLEDGE SHARING FORUM - NOVEMBER 08, 2022
      ---- PRESENTATION AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD  ---- Dr. Grace T. Cruz Mr. Sanny Boy Afable Atty. Franklin M. Quijano Hon. Bienvenido M. Abante, Jr.       
  • FF2022-67: Performance of ASEAN Member States in the Global Food Security Index 2018-2022
    Food systems are weakening and the global food environment is deteriorating. These are the major findings of the Global Food Security Index (GFSI) based on its 11 years of data. The Index offers a benchmarking model to assess the level of food security in 113 countries. Food security is defined as the state in which people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for a healthy and active life.
  • FF2022-66: Leaders, Laggers, and ASEAN 10 Performance in CPI, January 2022 Update
    The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) January 2022 Update states that the scores of several democracies which used to top the index and champion anti-corruption efforts around the world are deteriorating. Many of the high-scoring countries with relatively “clean” public sectors continue to enable transnational corruption. Moreover, corruption levels have stagnated worldwide during the devastating COVID-19 pandemic in 2020- 2021.
  • FF2022-65: Third Quarter 2022 Philippine Economic Performance
    The Philippine economy posted a 7.6% year-on-year (Y-o-Y) growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the third quarter of 2022. This is the sixth consecutive period of recorded GDP growth since the second quarter of 2021. Similarly, quarter-on-quarter (Q-o-Q) comparison shows a 2.9% expansion in the third quarter vis-à-vis its preceding period.
  • FF2022-64: Real Property Tax Revenue Performance
    The Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 mandates local government units (LGUs) to generate revenues through local tax and non-tax sources. Tax revenues are from the real property tax (RPT), business tax, and other taxes while non-tax revenues derive from fees and charges and receipts from the operation of economic enterprises in line with the government’s exercise of its proprietary functions.
  • FF2022-63: The Philippines’ Performance in the 2022 Global Innovation Index
    Overall Rank. In the 2022 Global Innovation Index (GII) report, the Philippines ranked 59th among 132 economies, an eight-notch decline from its 2021 rank (Figure 1). Nonetheless, the country remained among the top 40% of economies covered by the survey, which is still an improvement from being within the top 60% in 2018 with its erstwhile 73rd rank.
  • ABN2022-08: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FY2023
    UPDATED AS OF 23 SEPTEMBER 2022. Table 9. Obligations-Appropriations Ratio and Unused Appropriations has been updated to reflect the Transfers from Overall Savings of OSEC in FY 2020. The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Department of Agriculture contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Department submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit. The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • BB2022-07: ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL ALLOCATION OF THE FY 2023 NATIONAL BUDGET
    The country’s economy, which took the brunt of the impact of the COVID-19 crisis, is slowly recovering as the government ramps up its public spending and lifts restrictive policies to absorb the socio-economic shocks of the pandemic. In the inaugural budget message of the Marcos Jr. Administration, it has promised to deliver an Agenda for Prosperity by continuing the gains of the previous administration in infrastructure development and by accelerating support to the education, agriculture, and health sectors.
  • ABN2022-26: DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS FY2023
    UPDATED AS OF 19 SEPTEMBER 2022. The portion on regional allocation and the discussions on the "lumped operations budget under NCR Central Office" and possible "overlaps of infrastructure projects under Sustainable Infrastructure Projects Alleviating Gaps (SIPAG) and Basic Infrastructure Program (BIP)" has been updated to reflect the data presented by the DPWH under a separate document in the DBM website entitled "Details of the DPWH Programs and Projects".
  • ABN2022-28: NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on theNational Economic and Development Authority contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Agency submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-27: DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Department of Finance contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Department submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-25: COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Commission on Human Rights contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Agency submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-24: CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Civil Service Commission contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Agency submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-23: OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Office of the Ombudsman contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Agency submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-22: DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Department of National Defense contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Department submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-21: DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Department of Education contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Department submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • ABN2022-20: DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FY2023
    The Agency Budget Notes (ABN) on the Department of Transportation contributes to the making of more informed reviews and deliberation of the proposed budget of the Department submitted to Congress. The ABN provides budget-related information on agency plans and programs, physical accomplishments and financial management of prior year’s appropriations. This publication also highlights the results of program evaluation by other research institutions, as well as the audit findings and status of compliance of agencies to recommendations of the Commission on Audit.   The ABN examines the past, current and proposed budget in terms of allocation by program/project, type of expenditure (i.e., current expenditures and capital outlay), and shares of regional offices.
  • BB2022-06: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC EXPENDITURE REVIEW
    Research and Development (R&D) spending plays an important role in knowledge accumulation and technological innovation that can increase productivity and foster economic growth. However, the country also lags behind most of its ASEAN counterparts in R&D spending and is at par with Indonesia and Cambodia. This paper probes not only the level of R&D spending by government, but also the types of R&D programs being funded and prioritized. Given the gaps in Philippine R&D performance, limited funds, and the dearth of studies on Philippine R&D budgetary spending, the expenditure review seeks to examine the levels of allocation, distribution, and utilization of R&D funds. Further, it traces the funding mechanisms and the fund flows for different sectoral priorities/areas and R&D programs. A key recommendation is to increase overall levels of public R&D spending which must be made responsive to industry needs and inducive to private sector R&D investment.
  • PB2022-04: Institutionalizing the Philippines’ National Single Window: Tradenet
    The National Single Window (NSW) concept, a system that integrates and automates traderelated procedures, has been recognized by various countries as an effective measure to facilitate trade. For the Philippines, its endeavor to establish its NSW began in 2005 and was met with limited success. Given increasing recognition of the NSW’s importance in the country’s effort to digitalize to become resilient in the face of the continuing global health threats and supply chain disruptions, renewed efforts to put in place the new NSW called the TradeNet should be accompanied by its institutionalization.
  • BVT2022: BUDGET COMPARISON TABLES 2022 Adjusted Spending Program 2023 Proposed Budget
    The national budget is one of the most potent instruments of the government in pursuing development goals through the provision of vital public goods and services. It is also a tool for transparency to help taxpayers understand where their hard-earned monies go. This booklet, provides a comparison of the proposed FY 2023 budget and the current FY 2022 budget. Details are disaggregated by department, agency, and Special Purpose Funds. The budget levels are broken down by general expense class— PS, MOOE, CO, and FinEx.
  • BB2022-05: DIMENSIONS OF THE PROPOSED NATIONAL BUDGET FOR FY 2023
    This budget brief highlights the importance of the 2023 National Budget as the Philippines reopens in the middle of a pandemic, following a change in government administration.  Issues raised include the growth of debt service which limits the productive part of the budget and the need for NG to generate more revenues to finance key programs and sustain economic recovery. This brief is divided into major sections which include the following: 1) Sectoral allocation; 2) Climate change and R&D expenditures; 3) Allocation by expense class; 4) Allocation by recipient unit; 5) Budget utilization performance; and 6) Special purpose funds.  Moving forward, it emphasizes, among others, the need for government agencies to improve on operational efficiency, and for the government to prioritize productive investments as well as embark on cost-saving expenditures (including initiatives for rightsizing, e-governance). KEYWORDS:
  • CSP-62: A LEGISLATOR'S GUIDE IN ANALYZING THE NATIONAL BUDGET (4th Edition)
    The government budget is vital as a tool for development and as an instrument for public accountability.  It serves as a basis for tracking government expenditures and services delivered, and for evaluating the government’s use of public funds.  This Legislator’s Guide seeks to aid Members of Congress in the performance of their budget authorization and oversight functions, ex-ante and ex-post.  It expounds on the congressional power of the purse, looks at the dynamics between the Legislative and the Executive Branches in the context of government budgeting, highlights key information and documents useful for budget analysis, and suggests tools for the exercise of budget oversight. This Guide is divided into three parts: 1) the role of Congress in the budget process; 2) a framework for budget analysis, based on the public expenditure management (PEM) approach; and 3) expanded guide on resources for budget oversight.  This 4th edition of the Guide also adds a new chapter that highlights the key information in the National Expenditure Program (NEP) that are useful for budget analysis.    
  • BB2022-04: PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY AND THE PROPOSED FY 2023 NATIONAL BUDGET
    This Briefing Note provides a discussion on the public debt sustainability analysis with highlights on the FY 2022-2028 Medium-Term Fiscal Framework. In the analysis of key debt indicators, key findings show that the government’s debt level is still sustainable and the overall risk of debt sustainability is low. In decomposing debt-creating flows, the main drivers in the movements of the debt-to-GDP ratio are the primary deficit and real GDP growth. The debt dynamics are favorable as the projected growth rates are seen as greater than the interest rates. With the resulting growth rates exceeding the interest rates combined with the estimated DSPB (-3.3% of GDP), it can be assessed that the government has some elbow room to borrow and still stabilize the debt-to-GDP ratio over the medium term. However, the current debt profile may be broadly sound and vulnerabilities are at low risk, but the level of debt may still be influenced by uncertainty in macroeconomic variables. KEYWORDS:
  • BB2022-03: Macroeconomic Parameters: Implications on the Proposed FY 2023 National Government Budget
    This Budget Brief discusses the performance and prospects of selected macroeconomic parameters and their likely implications on the viability of the proposed 2023 national budget.  Among the macroeconomic parameters discussed are the following: (i) real GDP growth rate, (ii) inflation rate, (iii) interest rate (364-day Treasury bill rate), (iv) foreign exchange rate, (v) Dubai oil price, and (vi) unemployment rate.  The brief makes notable observations, including how with a promising first semester performance in 2022, the economy is poised to contribute significantly in raising government revenues after a slowdown caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.  It also warns of emerging downside risks that could temper prospects for a continued robust recovery. It recommends, among others, for government to focus on productivity-enhancing programs and projects specifically in education, public health, and research and development. KEYWORDS:
  • BB2022-02: The Proposed FY 2023 National Budget and the Medium-Term Revenue Program
    This Budget Brief starts with a discussion on the FY 2022-2028 Medium-Term Fiscal Framework and the Medium-Term Fiscal Program, with the latter establishing the fiscal consolidation strategy of the government.  Revenue projections from 2022-2028 are juxtaposed with the 30-year actual revenue performance to give context to what the revenue targets mean historically.  Medium-term revenue forecasts are also provided based on three alternative scenarios placed side by side with Development Budget Coordinating Committee (DBCC) revenue targets.
  • CSP-61: SECURING THE FUTURE: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LEGISLATION IN THE 19TH CONGRESS
    Securing the Future: Recommendations for Legislation in the 19th Congress contains a menu of policy proposals which may be considered by the House of Representatives 19th Congress.   Jointly prepared by the Congressional Policy and Budget Research Department and the Committee Affairs Department, this work is based upon a paradigm which focuses mainly on concepts of national security, national development, and human security.  It seeks to provide a proper lens with which to view and analyze issues and challenges at the national, regional and global levels; recognize key legislation enacted by previous Congresses; and recommend legislative measures that may be pursued.  This document is divided into eight major sections, as follows: 1) Revitalizing Agriculture and Attaining Food Security; 2) Protecting the Environment and Adapting to Climate Change; 3) Pursuing Human Development and Promoting Social Cohesion; 4) Accelerating Infrastructure Development and Digital Transformation; 5) Strengthening Industry and Services and Enhancing Productivity; 6) Promoting Global Security and International Cooperation; 7) Fostering Good Governance, Public Order and Security, and the Rule of Law; and 8) Achieving Fiscal Stability and Enhancing Public Financial Management.  Amidst an increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment, the formulation of a legislative agenda that is truly responsive to and attuned to the conditions and challenges of our times, and geared to enhance national and human security and achieve inclusive growth, becomes all the more necessary.
  • CN2022-02: Exploring Interventions to Reduce Youth Unemployment in the Philippines
    Even prior to the pandemic, the youth aged 15 to 24 years registered relatively higher unemployment rates compared to other age brackets. This problem was magnified during the pandemic as the youth were employed in the most affected sectors—retail, services, and tourism. This paper looks into the problem of youth unemployment. Current policies and programs are analyzed to possibly identify gaps that will help improve intervention. Policy proposals are also presented to help reduce youth unemployment in the country. KEYWORDS:
  • HSP-05: SECURING THE FUTURE: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LEGISLATION IN THE 19TH CONGRESS
    Securing the Future: Recommendations for Legislation in the 19th Congress contains a menu of policy proposals which may be considered by the House of Representatives 19th Congress.   Jointly prepared by the Congressional Policy and Budget Research Department and the Committee Affairs Department, this work is based upon a paradigm which focuses mainly on concepts of national security, national development, and human security.  It seeks to provide a proper lens with which to view and analyze issues and challenges at the national, regional and global levels; recognize key legislation enacted by previous Congresses; and recommend legislative measures that may be pursued.  This document is divided into eight major sections, as follows: 1) Revitalizing Agriculture and Attaining Food Security; 2) Protecting the Environment and Adapting to Climate Change; 3) Pursuing Human Development and Promoting Social Cohesion; 4) Accelerating Infrastructure Development and Digital Transformation; 5) Strengthening Industry and Services and Enhancing Productivity; 6) Promoting Global Security and International Cooperation; 7) Fostering Good Governance, Public Order and Security, and the Rule of Law; and 8) Achieving Fiscal Stability and Enhancing Public Financial Management.  Amidst an increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment, the formulation of a legislative agenda that is truly responsive to and attuned to the conditions and challenges of our times, and geared to enhance national and human security and achieve inclusive growth, becomes all the more necessary. KEYWORDS:
  • PB2022-03: An Evaluation of Sin Taxes’ Implementation and Health Expenditure Earmarking
    This paper evaluates the implementation of the sin tax reform during the period 2012 to 2021 using tax and expenditure earmarking indicators provided under the sin tax monitoring framework of the World Bank. During the review period, four tax laws were passed that adjusted the excise taxation on tobacco and alcohol products with objectives to reduce consumption of sin products and generate additional revenues to augment health spending. The findings of the evaluation show that the reform has significantly boosted government revenues during the period, owing to good tax design and regular tax rate adjustments. Consequently, earmarked revenues from sin taxes have increased the budgets of key health programs that expand health insurance coverage, attain the MDG/SDG goals, improve public health facilities, and provide medical assistance to indigents. In the medium term, sin tax revenues are expected to continue to be a sustainable source of health financing based on projections using estimated elasticity of demand of sin products. However, some areas of implementation need close monitoring by the government moving forward, such as revenue leakages due to illicit tobacco trade, the uptick in smoking prevalence, declines in utilization rates of programs funded by sin tax revenues, and transparency of usage of earmarked revenues for tobacco-producing LGUs.  
  • BB2022-01: DIMENSIONS OF THE 2022 NATIONAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET (AS ENACTED UNDER RA NO. 11639)
    With last year’s (2021) budget formulated as a primary tool for “reset, rebound and recovery” while the country battles the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the socio-economic challenges in health and economy, the 2022 National Government (NG) Budget is primarily focused on steering towards a strong and genuine recovery. It was crafted based on three guiding pillars as follows: (1) building a resilient social services sector amidst the pandemic; (2) sustaining the momentum towards economic recovery; and, (3) continuing the investments in infrastructure development.    
  • CN2022-01: THE GROWING PHILIPPINE DIGITAL ECONOMY: A Focus on eCommerce and Digital Payments
    The Philippines is dubbed as the fastest growing digital economy among major ASEAN member-states in 2021. Effectively leveraging digital transformation can propel the country’s economic recovery from the losses brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the uneven and digitally-underdeveloped landscape persists stemming from infrastructure insufficiency, low level of internet literacy, and high cost of connectivity. This paper expounds on the value of the digital economy, and describes the country’s prevalent ICT context. It also discusses the emerging trends and challenges, focusing on the two main sectors: e-Commerce and digital payments. Finally, it summarizes the national government plans and strategic directions to accelerate digitalization, and the proposed key legislations that could address the enumerated issues and challenges of the internet economy. KEYWORDS:  
  • DP2022-01: Estimating the Price Elasticity of Demand for Cigarettes and Alcohol Products in the Philippines
    The study estimated the total price elasticity of demand for cigarette and select alcohol products in the Philippines as an important input for tax policy aimed at reducing alcohol and cigarette consumption and raising much needed government revenues. The estimation was conducted by applying autoregressive error regression on the quarterly time series data of the volume of removals and retail prices of cigarettes and alcohol products in the Philippines over the period 2012 to 2021. The study supports the findings of earlier studies that cigarette consumption is price inelastic. Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is about -0.83, meaning that a 1% price increase could lead to a 0.83% decrease in consumption. Results for price elasticity of demand for beers is elastic at 1.48, meaning that a 1% increase in the price of beer would produce a 1.48% decrease in consumption. Furthermore, it was found that price elasticity of demand for distilled spirits appears to be unit elastic while wine is highly elastic at 1.03 and 8.51, respectively. The models developed in this study are free from problems on specifications such as serial correlation and heteroscedasticity. Policymakers may consider these results in view of future excise tax reforms.  

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